Andrey Kim, E-mailThe aether mechanics and the principle of absoluteness. ( Translated from Russian by Andrey Kim. )
- The propagation of electromagnetic waves -
**no waves can propagate in the void (in the inane space)**; - Gravitational interaction -
**no bodies can interact through the void**; - So-called, "bending of space" -
**if the space capable to change a direction of the beam of light, that means, it has certain properties, but the void cannot possess any properties**; - So-called, "conversion of mass into energy" -
**existent cannot become nonentity, but particles can decompose to the elements of aether.**
Existence of aether is confirmed by many experiments, which were performed accurately for the
purpose of the measurement of the light velocity [3], [4], [5].
In particular, D. Miller as a result of carrying out the careful experiments
the following regularity is revealed: the velocity of "aether drift" (deviation of the velocity of light from c) grows with an increase in the distance from the earth's surface.
**The high penetrating power**- the aether can penetrate through the thicknesses of any substance, similarly how air passes through the volleyball grid. The degree of the permeability of aether by substance we will correlate inversely proportionally with the density of this substance;**The superfluidity**- the motion of aether occurs almost with zero energy loss to friction;**The motion entrainment**- that part of aether, which does not penetrate through the material body during its motion, is capable of beginning to move together with the body. In other words, the motion of body relative to aether sets aether in motion, and the motion of aether relative to body, it sets this body into the motion, if this nothing impedes;**The absorptivity**- material bodies are capable to absorb the aether, including aethirons (corpuscles of aether) in the composition of its atoms;**The magnetism**- as in any elastic medium, in aether can be formed different kind of wave and vortices. We will assume that the electromagnetic phenomena are manifestations of this type of motions.
Fig. 1. The aether vortex accompanies the motion of body.
Thus, taking into account the influence of aether on the motion of bodies, we can give the following determination of mass:
Mass - is a measure for interaction of body with aether.
We will assume that during the motion of body with the constant velocity
relative to motionless aether, the created vortex has constant (weakly damped)
characteristics in view of the superfluidity of aether.
During the accelerated motion in aether there are formed the waves,
which move then independent of body, similarly how if we push any object
in the water, and waves will appear on its surface.
This idea about the wave development is demonstrated in fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Appearance of the aether waves with the transient acceleration of body.
Wave running before the body in fig. 2 is the small packing of aether, and wave running after the body is small discharged state of aether. Waves themselves will be the boundary between aether, which even fixed and with aether, which were begun to move together with the body.
Let us designate wave velocity in aether by the letter Fig. 3. Thickening the waves of aether.
After we determined to mass, this "thickening" of the waves of aether with the velocity of the body m = m_{0} ^{.} h(v). The aether and motion.
As we recently explained, for creating the accelerating motion of body in aether, we must overcome a certain reaction of aether to motion change. This reaction, which we will name the inertial force, is proportional to the mass of the body and to its acceleration relative to aether:
F = m _{i}^{.} a_{r}. (1)
Let us emphasize that in this formula there is vital difference from second Newton's law, being consisted in the fact that the acceleration vector f (x, y, z, t)
- the velocity vector of aether in the moving coordinates of this material particle.
Then, the acceleration vector of material particle is equal a = dv / dt,
and the acceleration vector of aether in the coordinates of the material particle is equal a_{a} = v^{.} div (v_{a}) + dv_{
a} / dt.
( here div - divergence: div(A) =dA/dx+dA/dy+dA/dz) ).
The acceleration of material particle relative to aether let us define as the difference between these accelerations: a_{r} = a - a_{a}.
Hence F = m _{i}^{.} (a - a_{
a}).
F
=m_{k}^{.} q^{.} (v-v). _{
a}Here q - very important physical constant, which characterizes the properties of aether, and which is not determined yet. Since we revealed no other forces, which have effect during the motion of body in aether, let us write down the equation of the free motion of body in aether: F_{i} + F_{
k} = 0; Or ^{.} (a - a_{
a}) + m^{.} q^{.} (v-v) = 0. (2) _{
a}
However, first Newton's law asserts that the material body will move along the straight line with the constant velocity, if there is act no forces on it. Perhaps this is the not proved fact.
From the point of view of the aether mechanics, it would be strange, if in this flight, it will be not discovered braking of probes. Possessing the precise parameters of the flights of probes "Pioneer-10" and "Pioneer-11" it would be possible to calculate the value of the constant q, entering equation (2).
Besides the braking we can observe examples of "infinite" circular motion, when the motion of bodies is close in the velocity and in the direction to the motion of aether flows. We will examine this case in the following chapter. Let us show that the summands in equation (2) do not change with the examination of the motion in any other system of coordinates. Let us introduce into the examination the arbitrary system of coordinates K', which is moved relative to our coordinate system with an acceleration of a"(t) and a velocity of v"(t). Then at each moment of the time v' =v+v", v'_{a} =v_{a} +v",
And also a' =a+a", a'.
_{a} =a_{a}+a"We will finally obtain that ^{.} (a ' - a '_{a}) + m^{.} q^{.} (v '-v') = m _{a}^{.} (a - a_{a}) + m^{.} q^{.} (v-v).
_{a}So the values of forces are equal in both coordinate systems, and there are no values of the velocity v" and the acceleration a" neither in the left nor in the right side of the equation.
Let us note that under the action of a certain external force, which acts on the material body, the equation of motion (2) will take the following form: ^{.} (a-a_{a}) + m^{.} q^{.} (v-v_{a}) = F, (3) Here F is the vector of external force, which acts on the material particle.
The aether and gravity.
The principle of the proposed gravitational mechanism is not new, it was proposed by M. Lomonosov and independent of him by Georg Louis Lessazh [2], then it was developed by a number of the authors and it has contemporary followers [6], [7].
^{2},
Here v - velocity of the motion of medium; K - certain coefficient, depending on absorption rate; R - distance from the center of sphere.
Since we have assumed that the absorption rate of aether is proportional to mass, let us rewrite the obtained dependence taking into account mass.
_{a} = (k ^{.} M) / R^{2}, (4)
Here v _{a} - the velocity of the motion of aether;
M - mass of the body, which absorbs aether; k - coefficient of absorption of aether by the unit of mass.
Let us determine the force, which retains the certain fixed state material particle, which is been located at a distance of R from the center of sphere. For this we will use equation (3). For fixed particle a=0, v=0, and also a F = m^{.} q^{.}
v_{a}. Let us substitute (4) into the obtained equation: F = q^{.} k^{.}
M^{.} m / R^{2}.
As it was shown earlier, q and k - are constants, which depend on the properties of aether. Let us designate their multiplication by letter G and we will finally obtain: F = G^{.} M^{.} m /
R^{2}. (5) Since the force, which retains material point in the fixed state, is equal to the force of pressure of aether on this point, expression (5) is a formula of gravity, which completely coincides with the formula, obtained by Newton by empirical way. However, the motions of material body in "gravitational field" differ from the Newton's law. The expression of gravity force for the moving body we can receive of (2) and (4). Taking into account that ( a_{a}) = - G^{.} M / R^{3}:
F = m ^{.} (G^{.} M /
R^{2} - (q - G^{.} M / R^{3})^{.} v).
Here R = R _{o} - r, and R_{o} -
distance between the bodies at the initial moment of time, R - coordinate along the axis, directed toward to center the attracting body.
This equation is differed from the equation of classical mechanics in terms of component
- the rotation of planets is occurred "infinitely" for long; - the trajectories of planets are steady; - the aether has a property "the motion entrainment", The aether stabilizes the orbits of planets. Furthermore, since aether moves to the center of system and it is absorbed by star, then we will assume that the motion of aether has spiral-shaped nature. For the clarity of the aforesaid, in fig. 4. is represented the nature of the motion of aether of planetary system in the plane of ecliptic. Fig. 4. However, concerning the not numerous comets, which move around the sun against the direction of rotation of aether, then these comparatively young comets, seized by the sun, in the course of time either will change the direction of its rotations, or will fall in the sun. The aether and classical mechanics.
Let us show that the laws of classical mechanics are the special case of the
laws of the aether mechanics.
Let us introduce into the examination frame of reference motionlessly connected with the earth's surface.
Let us isolate in the system this local region, in order to its length (along X axis)
there was not very large (in this case, in the local region the earth's surface can be considered as straight line),
and in order to its height (along Y axis) there was not also very large,
for example, not more than 1 km.
^{.} a_{x} + m^{.} q^{.} (v_{x}-v_{ax}) = F_{x}.
m ^{.} a_{y} + m^{.} q^{.} (v_{y}-v_{ay}) = F_{y}.
In the considered region the velocity of aether in the projection on X axis will be equal to zero v ^{.} a_{x} = F_{x}.
^{.} a_{y} = F_{y} - G^{.} M^{.} m / R^{2}.
The carried out analysis shows that;
Principle of the absoluteness.
Let us examine a certain material body of any form, for example, of parallelepiped, fig. 5. Parallelepiped possesses the concrete physical properties: by length, by width, by height, by mass, by temperature, etc. Fig. 5. Frame of references
Let us place next to the object of examination arbitrary frame of reference K, in which the points of parallelepiped is obtained the specific coordinates.
Is frame of reference real physical object or it there is the specific kind subjective speculative construction?
Are the coordinates of point A of parallelepiped physical quantities?
Let us mentally transfer frame of reference k to the position K' - let us ascertain that the coordinates of point A in K' will be others.
The following important conclusion follows from the principle of absoluteness:
Thus, it is possible with the large confidence to assert that in the most complex and most important branch of physics - "physics of elementary particles" the space is also unthinkable without the aether as in the electrodynamics and in the general theory of relativity. The literature.
- V.A.Atsjukovsky. "General aetherdynamics", Moscow, Energoatomizdat, 1990.
- I.Kuldoshin. "Brief history of aether".
- A.A.Majkelson, E.V.Morli. "About relative movement of the Earth in the aether". Amer. J. Sci., 1887.
- D.K.Miller. "Experiments on a aether wind and definition of absolute movement of the Earth". The report in Kejsovsk school of applied science, 1933.
- A. Solovej. "The aether is the gravitational field of substance".
- V.N. Baharev "The matter and its conditions in the universe".
- A.P. Nevsky "Epoch of aether".
- E. Evdokimov "The engine of the universe".
- V. Barashenkov "Who has denied the theory of relativity?"
- G.I. Shipov "The theory of physical vacuum".
The additional literature.
- All about the aether, http://www.efir.com.ua
- The collection of articles on section "The theory of relativity and it criticism", In Russian, In English.
- New hypotheses, http://new-idea.kulichki.net/articles.htm
(c) Andrey Kim, October 2004. e-mail. The author of the given article resolves a free reprint it in print and electronic editions. |