The aether mechanics and the principle of absoluteness

Andrey Kim, E-mail
The aether mechanics and the principle of absoluteness.
( Translated from Russian by Andrey Kim. )

The new laws of mechanics are offered, which are exploitable in all (including non-inertial) frames of reference. The uniform nature of gravitational and inertial forces is shown. New definition of the mass of material body is given. The laws of classical mechanics are special cases of new laws. The principle of absoluteness is formulated, which asserts that all physical parameters of any process, in particular, energy, forces, time intervals and geometrical forms, are equal in all frames of reference.

Properties of aether.
The aether and mass.
The aether and motion.
The aether and gravity.
The aether and classical mechanics.
The principle of the absoluteness.
The aether and light velocity.
The aether and the special theory of relativity.
The aether and the general theory of relativity.


The history of knowledge of aether emanate from depth of millennia, and on boundary of 19 and 20 centuries the overwhelming majority of scientists convinced of existence of aether [1], [2]. There is no doubt that for these persuasions there were serious bases.

Let us give some of the signs, which confirm, that entire space of the universe is filled with the aether substance:

  • The propagation of electromagnetic waves - no waves can propagate in the void (in the inane space);
  • Gravitational interaction - no bodies can interact through the void;
  • So-called, "bending of space" - if the space capable to change a direction of the beam of light, that means, it has certain properties, but the void cannot possess any properties;
  • So-called, "conversion of mass into energy" - existent cannot become nonentity, but particles can decompose to the elements of aether.

Existence of aether is confirmed by many experiments, which were performed accurately for the purpose of the measurement of the light velocity [3], [4], [5]. In particular, D. Miller as a result of carrying out the careful experiments the following regularity is revealed: the velocity of "aether drift" (deviation of the velocity of light from c) grows with an increase in the distance from the earth's surface.

Thus, it is possible to say that not only theoretical investigations, but also experimental data convince us in the fact that entire space of the universe is filled special kind of substance - the aether.

Properties of aether.

In our hypothesis we will assume that aether possesses the following properties:

  • The high penetrating power - the aether can penetrate through the thicknesses of any substance, similarly how air passes through the volleyball grid. The degree of the permeability of aether by substance we will correlate inversely proportionally with the density of this substance;
  • The superfluidity - the motion of aether occurs almost with zero energy loss to friction;
  • The motion entrainment - that part of aether, which does not penetrate through the material body during its motion, is capable of beginning to move together with the body. In other words, the motion of body relative to aether sets aether in motion, and the motion of aether relative to body, it sets this body into the motion, if this nothing impedes;
  • The absorptivity - material bodies are capable to absorb the aether, including aethirons (corpuscles of aether) in the composition of its atoms;
  • The magnetism - as in any elastic medium, in aether can be formed different kind of wave and vortices. We will assume that the electromagnetic phenomena are manifestations of this type of motions.

The aether and mass

In contemporary physics, until now, there is no clear understanding what is mass is. Let us be turned to the Great Soviet Encyclopedia:

Mass is physical quantity, one of the fundamental characteristics of matter, determining its inertia and gravitational properties. Mass respectively are distinguished to inert M. and gravitational M.

Is it possible from this determination to obtain clear representation about the mass and to understand, why the body, which received acceleration, it does not continue to move accelerated in the void, or why inert and gravitational masses are equal, or why the mass of body can grow, when body moves with the high velocity.

On the basis of the determined properties of aether, and first of all, from "the motion entrainment", we can to assume that with the acceleration of material body in aether it is created the certain wave of motion, and then, during the "free" motion of body, this wave continues motion together with the body, fig. 1. In order to stop a body and to extinguish the wave of motion, it is also necessary to exert force.

Fig. 1. The aether vortex accompanies the motion of body.

Thus, taking into account the influence of aether on the motion of bodies, we can give the following determination of mass:

Mass - is a measure for interaction of body with aether.

We will assume that during the motion of body with the constant velocity relative to motionless aether, the created vortex has constant (weakly damped) characteristics in view of the superfluidity of aether. During the accelerated motion in aether there are formed the waves, which move then independent of body, similarly how if we push any object in the water, and waves will appear on its surface. This idea about the wave development is demonstrated in fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Appearance of the aether waves with the transient acceleration of body.

Wave running before the body in fig. 2 is the small packing of aether, and wave running after the body is small discharged state of aether. Waves themselves will be the boundary between aether, which even fixed and with aether, which were begun to move together with the body. Let us designate wave velocity in aether by the letter c. What will occur, if the velocity of the body v (relative to fixed aether) will be close to the velocity of aether wave, and in this case, to the body will be applied the constant force?

In fig. 3 we see that in this case before the body it appears increasing packing of aether, which impedes body further motion. From the figure it is possible to obtain visual idea about that which the more v approaches in the value c, the greater the force necessarily be applied for further acceleration of motion.

Fig. 3. Thickening the waves of aether.

After we determined to mass, this "thickening" of the waves of aether with the velocity of the body v close to c can be treated as an increase in the mass. In this case, the mass of body, which depends on velocity, can be expressed as the multiplication of rest mass m0 (mass of body with v=0) and the coefficient, which depends on the velocity:

m = m0 . h(v). 

The aether and motion.

As we recently explained, for creating the accelerating motion of body in aether, we must overcome a certain reaction of aether to motion change. This reaction, which we will name the inertial force, is proportional to the mass of the body and to its acceleration relative to aether:

Fi = m . ar.  (1)

Let us emphasize that in this formula there is vital difference from second Newton's law, being consisted in the fact that the acceleration vector ar is not acceleration in an inertial reference system, but the acceleration of body relative to moving aether. In order to simplify understanding the aforesaid, and also in order to formulate (1) for any arbitrary system of coordinates, let us express acceleration as derivative of velocity.

v = f (t) - the velocity vector of material particle in a certain arbitrary coordinate system,
va = f (x, y, z, t) - the velocity vector of aether in the moving coordinates of this material particle.
Then, the acceleration vector of material particle is equal a = dv / dt,
and the acceleration vector of aether in the coordinates of the material particle is equal
aa = v. div (va) + dv a / dt. ( here div - divergence: div(A) =dA/dx+dA/dy+dA/dz) ).

The acceleration of material particle relative to aether let us define as the difference between these accelerations:
ar = a - aa.


Fi = m . (a - a a)

The fluidity of aether is high, but, nevertheless, during the motion of any body in the elastic medium, the medium influences on body, force of which depends on the relative velocity of body and medium. Let us name this force of the kinetic:

Fk =m. q. (v-v a)

q - very important physical constant, which characterizes the properties of aether, and which is not determined yet.

Since we revealed no other forces, which have effect during the motion of body in aether, let us write down the equation of the free motion of body in aether:

Fi + F k = 0

m. (a - a a) + m. q. (v-v a) = 0. (2)

However, first Newton's law asserts that the material body will move along the straight line with the constant velocity, if there is act no forces on it. Perhaps this is the not proved fact.

During entire history of humanity there it was not one observation, in which the material body infinitely continued the rectilinear motion with the constant velocity. On the contrary, everywhere we observe the retarded, either accelerated or rotary motion under the effect of aether. In this confirmation let us quote communication about braking of space probes: CNN:

(CNN) -- An unknown force seeming to pull on a pair of distant space probes has left astronomers with a weighty mystery, one that appears to defy the conventional laws of physics.

The Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 spacecraft, which for decades have steadily traveled in opposite directions in the solar system, have covered significantly less space then they should have, astronomers said.

A team of NASA researchers has systematically attempted to determine what has slowed the sibling NASA robot ships, to no avail.

From the point of view of the aether mechanics, it would be strange, if in this flight, it will be not discovered braking of probes. Possessing the precise parameters of the flights of probes "Pioneer-10" and "Pioneer-11" it would be possible to calculate the value of the constant q, entering equation (2).

Besides the braking we can observe examples of "infinite" circular motion, when the motion of bodies is close in the velocity and in the direction to the motion of aether flows. We will examine this case in the following chapter.

Let us show that the summands in equation (2) do not change with the examination of the motion in any other system of coordinates. Let us introduce into the examination the arbitrary system of coordinates K', which is moved relative to our coordinate system with an acceleration of a"(t) and a velocity of v"(t).

Then at each moment of the time v' =v+v", v'a =va +v",
And also a' =a+a", a'a =aa+a".

We will finally obtain that

m . (a ' - a 'a) + m. q. (v '-v'a) = m . (a - aa) + m. q. (v-va).

So the values of forces are equal in both coordinate systems, and there are no values of the velocity v" and the acceleration a" neither in the left nor in the right side of the equation.

Let us note that under the action of a certain external force, which acts on the material body, the equation of motion (2) will take the following form:

m. (a-aa) + m. q. (v-va) = F,  (3)

Here F is the vector of external force, which acts on the material particle.

The aether and gravity.

The principle of the proposed gravitational mechanism is not new, it was proposed by M. Lomonosov and independent of him by Georg Louis Lessazh [2], then it was developed by a number of the authors and it has contemporary followers [6], [7].

The essence of this mechanism of gravity lies in the fact that with the continuous absorption of aether by material bodies, between these bodies is created aether rarefaction; therefore the external pressure of aether on the bodies will be more than in the space between the bodies. As a result of the difference of pressures, body are pushed to each other by the flows of aether. In other words, gravity - is not the attraction of bodies by each other, but pushing of bodies by the external pressure of aether.

For the clarity let us demonstrate this formulation based on the example of tides. The Moon does not attract water of terrestrial oceans to itself; it only reduces the pressure of aether to the earth from its side. From other sides of the terrestrial globe, the higher pressure of aether drives waters of oceans to the side of moon.

For the mathematical description of gravity we will use the property of material bodies to absorb the aether proportional to its mass. Accordingly, the very massive bodies will have the noticeable absorption of aether, such, as stars and planets. This assumption agrees well with the known scientific fact of a constant increase of mass and the sizes of the Earth, Moon and other celestial objects.

It is not difficult to show that if a certain sphere evenly absorbs surrounding its medium (for example, gas), then the medium motion velocity dependence of the distance from the center of sphere will be submitted to the following formula:

v = K / R2,

v - velocity of the motion of medium;
K - certain coefficient, depending on absorption rate;
R - distance from the center of sphere.

Since we have assumed that the absorption rate of aether is proportional to mass, let us rewrite the obtained dependence taking into account mass.

va = (k . M) / R2,  (4)

va - the velocity of the motion of aether;
M - mass of the body, which absorbs aether;
k - coefficient of absorption of aether by the unit of mass.

Let us determine the force, which retains the certain fixed state material particle, which is been located at a distance of R from the center of sphere. For this we will use equation (3). For fixed particle a=0, v=0, and also aa = 0 (since the velocity of aether at fixed particle does not change in the time), we will obtain

F = m. q. va.

Let us substitute (4) into the obtained equation:

F = q. k. M. m / R2.

As it was shown earlier, q and k - are constants, which depend on the properties of aether. Let us designate their multiplication by letter G and we will finally obtain:

F = G. M. m / R2.  (5)

Since the force, which retains material point in the fixed state, is equal to the force of pressure of aether on this point, expression (5) is a formula of gravity, which completely coincides with the formula, obtained by Newton by empirical way.

However, the motions of material body in "gravitational field" differ from the Newton's law. The expression of gravity force for the moving body we can receive of (2) and (4). Taking into account that (aa) = - G. M / R3:

F = m . (G. M / R2 - (q - G. M / R3). v)

Here R = Ro - r, and Ro - distance between the bodies at the initial moment of time, R - coordinate along the axis, directed toward to center the attracting body.

This equation is differed from the equation of classical mechanics in terms of component
(q - G. M/R3).v. It can explain the established fact, that for the remote bodies, which are approaching each other with the high velocity, the force of their mutual attraction is less, than its static value [8].

We determined, that the aether above the earth's surface moves from top to bottom. Hence it follows that during the motion of body along the surface, aether does not exert the noticeable resistance to horizontal to motion.

Let us examine the motion of aether and material bodies in a certain planetary system, for example, in the solar system.
On the basis of the fact that:

- all planets revolve in one direction;
- the rotation of planets is occurred "infinitely" for long;
- the trajectories of planets are steady;
- the aether has a property "the motion entrainment",
we will make the important conclusion that aether revolves around the center of system in same direction with the planets.
The aether stabilizes the orbits of planets. Furthermore, since aether moves to the center of system and it is absorbed by star, then we will assume that the motion of aether has spiral-shaped nature. For the clarity of the aforesaid, in fig. 4. is represented the nature of the motion of aether of planetary system in the plane of ecliptic.

Fig. 4.

However, concerning the not numerous comets, which move around the sun against the direction of rotation of aether, then these comparatively young comets, seized by the sun, in the course of time either will change the direction of its rotations, or will fall in the sun.

The aether and classical mechanics.

Let us show that the laws of classical mechanics are the special case of the laws of the aether mechanics. Let us introduce into the examination frame of reference motionlessly connected with the earth's surface. Let us isolate in the system this local region, in order to its length (along X axis) there was not very large (in this case, in the local region the earth's surface can be considered as straight line), and in order to its height (along Y axis) there was not also very large, for example, not more than 1 km.

In view of the small dimensions of this region, in its boundaries a change in the direction and velocity of aether flow it is possible to consider it such small that it can be disregarded. Thus, we will consider that the direction of aether flow occurs from top to bottom perpendicular to X axis, and the velocity of aethirons (corpuscles of aether) in the boundary regions does not change (aa= 0).

Taking this into account, for a certain material particle, on which acts the certain force F, let us write down equation (3) in the projections on the coordinate axis:

m . ax + m. q. (vx-vax) = Fx
m . ay + m. q. (vy-vay) = Fy

In the considered region the velocity of aether in the projection on X axis will be equal to zero vax =0. Since value q several orders less than 1, also, taking into account the fact that the velocity of material particle are not very high, let us assume that m. q. vx =0 and m. q. vy =0.

Then, using equations (4) and (5) we will obtain:

m . ax = Fx

m . ay = Fy - G. M. m / R2

The carried out analysis shows that;
1) For the aether mechanics it is not necessary to introduce gravity force as a external force, which acts on the body.
2) There are not inertial reference systems in nature. The small regions of space conditionally can be considered as inertial, if
    a) changes of a direction of aether flow in the range of this region are so small, that these changes can be disregarded;
    b) the velocities of the motion of material objects are not very high.

On the basis of these conditions, by inertial frame of reference (IFOR) there will be the coordinate systems, connected with the surface of the very massive bodies (for example, the Earth or Mars), in which the examination of motion is limited to the small regions of space. Despite the fact that "IFOR of the Earth" and "IFOR of Mars" will have both rotating and accelerating motion relative to each other, in both "IFOR" the laws of classical mechanics will be carried out with the high accuracy. With the sufficiently large removal from the planets conditional IFOR it will be determined by the central star (sun), since precisely it first of all will begin to determine the direction of aether flow.

Principle of the absoluteness.

Let us examine a certain material body of any form, for example, of parallelepiped, fig. 5. Parallelepiped possesses the concrete physical properties: by length, by width, by height, by mass, by temperature, etc.

Fig. 5. Frame of references

Let us place next to the object of examination arbitrary frame of reference K, in which the points of parallelepiped is obtained the specific coordinates. Is frame of reference real physical object or it there is the specific kind subjective speculative construction? Are the coordinates of point A of parallelepiped physical quantities? Let us mentally transfer frame of reference k to the position K' - let us ascertain that the coordinates of point A in K' will be others.

On the basis of this, let us draw the important conclusion: Frame of references are not physical objects, therefore, the coordinates of the points, which belong to material bodies are not physical quantities.

If we establish beginning K' into point A, then the coordinate of point B will characterize physical quantity - the length of parallelepiped. However, if frame of reference K' we will begin to move relatively to the parallelepiped with a certain acceleration, then coordinate of both points A and B will change equally, since by the mental displacement of the imagined lines we cannot change the dimensions of the real physical object. Thus, physical quantity are not coordinates themselves, but the difference between them, so it follows that the geometric forms of any physical objects are identical in all moving frame of references.

In the moving imaginary frame of reference the points of parallelepiped will acquire the velocities and the accelerations, which will be the derivatives from the coordinates. Since we has already been determined, that coordinate are not physical quantities in any to arbitrary frame of reference, hence it follows that the derivatives of the coordinates of any order (velocity, acceleration) also are not the physical quantities. From other side, distance between the points, belonging to concrete objects, they are physical values, whence it follows that relative velocities and the acceleration between the points, which belong to bodies they are physical values.

Thus, summing up the entire said in this part of the article, let us formulate the principle of the absoluteness:

All without the exception physical parameters of any process are absolute, i.e., they do not depend on that, in what frame of reference they are examined.

The following important conclusion follows from the principle of absoluteness: if as a result of applying any law at least one physical parameter assumes different values in the different frame of references, then this law contains error.

Separate attention merits consideration of concept "the time".

Let us suppose we have two heating elements on the boiling table and a kettle heats faster on one of them than on the second. Does it follows that the time above one element goes faster? If we agree with this understanding of time, then we will not be able to compare the duration of the physical processes between themselves and to track the time sequence of events. Two persons can analyze physical phenomena only in such a case, if they agree between themselves about the general time scale, which is uniform for them.

Space is physical concept, but for the analysis in it a physical phenomena, people must agree about the abstract coordinate system, in which analysis will be carried out. Accurately also it is possible to speak about the time: time is physical concept, but for the analysis in it the physical phenomena, people must agree about the united time scale.

It is obvious that this scale must be subordinated to the following rule:
Time flows equally and evenly at all points of space.

Let us represent that it will occur, if we will not adhere to this rule. First, we will not be able to unambiguously evaluate the velocity of anything, for example, motion. Actually, if at movement the body intersects different zones with different course of time in them, then what time zone do we must get to calculate the velocity in our frame of reference? In the second place, to us it will be wanted to estimate the velocity of lapse of time in the different zones. But what is the velocity of lapse of time is? Is this is a change in the time for the unit of time??

To avoid absurdity, at the analysis of physical processes we can speak only about velocity of these processes in the uniform absolute scale of time, but not about the velocity of time in zones, where these processes proceeding.

Conditional time scale must be based on the fundamental property of the nature: durations of identical physical processes in the identical physical conditions they are equal. Therefore the "divisions" of time scale must be based on the velocity of any stable physical process in the constant physical conditions. Long time such process was the rotation of the sun in the "Earth" frame of reference. Sundials reliably served people in millennia, until be invented the more precise atomic clock, based on to the emission frequency of atoms.

However, the blind faith in the accuracy atomic clock, which "velocity" depends on gravity, it led to the erroneous opinion that "time" depends upon the "tensions of gravitational field". Is actual, an atomic clock located at the height on an skyscraper, for example, after only twenty-four hours they will estrange with the same clock, located on earth surface. From other side, two sundials, located on the different heights above the earth they don't will estrange in the indications and through millions years. This speaks, that the synchronization of time in different points it is possible even when both points move with the different accelerations (in our case - in the coordinate system, attached with the sun).

Summing up the entire said about the time and about the frame of references, let us make the following conclusion: any kind of the assumption that time can be depended on something (be it gravity, or relative the velocity in frame of reference) is nothing else but deep error.

The aether and light velocity.

We have already determined the fact that the velocities of physical objects in any frame of references are not physical quantities. So the frame of reference would acquire physical sense, if it compulsorily will be attached to any physical body. Hence it follows that speaking about the light velocity is possible only with respect to any to the material object, which has mass. Since, according to our hypothesis, light is wave in aether, we must recall about the property of mass: "the aether entrainment". The conclusion directly follows: the motion of material body it can change the light velocity in the certain the region of space, which surrounds the body. The more massive the body is, the greater the degree of aether entrainment and the greater the region of entrainment.

This inference well corresponds with many experiments above the light velocity measurement in the moving media, in which it is extended [3], [4], [5]. In particular, Michaelson - Morley experiences convincingly show that near from the earth's surface the light almost to 100 % is entrained by terrestrial mass.

In connection with the obtained conclusions, it is possible to assume about existence of the interesting phenomena:
- The light, which goes to us from the stars, has not only the curvilinear trajectory, but also changes velocity on its way.
- The velocity of light in the direction from the Earth is upward lower than the velocity of light, falling to the Earth.
- The being fast-turned massive disk changes direction and velocity light in immediate proximity in the circle, which is been the boundary of disk.

The aether and the special theory of relativity.

By result of the epistemological error, when the non-physical category (velocity of light in inertial frame of reference) was appropriated the physical property (velocity of light in aether), the distortion of the physical parameters of objects upon transfer of one abstract frame of reference into another, was worked out.

Let us visualize the air ball, filled with air. If the wall thickness of ball is identical at any point of its surface, then sphere will get spherical shape. According to the special theory of relativity in any inertial frame of reference, which moves relative to sphere, the sphere is reduced along motion line and is converted into the ellipsoid. Thus, following questions are appeared:

- If sphere did decrease in the volume, did change air density inside it?

- If did change the form of sphere, did change tension in its walls?

- If did change the form of sphere, did change tension in its walls?

In the textbooks of physics, in chapters about the special theory of relativity are given the completely correct answers to the similar questions: densities and tensions do not change, because the effect of the decrease of lengths is not physical, but cinematic, i.e., its reason - special feature of measurements.

In other words, the "decrease of lengths" - this of the distortions, which appear with the measurements lengths by light beam, if one assumes that the velocity of light in both frames of reference it is equal c=.const.

From other side, the "decrease of lengths" enters into the same equations, that also "shortening of time", whence it follows that and everything else "relativistic effects" - are not the physical phenomena (but only by cinematic or, in other words, speculative).

As is known, the law of an increase in the lifetime unstable particles has mean-static nature. This means that from the set of the particles driven away with the identical velocity only small insignificant part is directly subordinated to the formula of the conversion of time. However, for the majority of particles the "lifetime" will prove to be either more than calculated, or it is less. Do not follow from this nonconformity of law of the special theory of relativity, proven experimentally, that the "lifetime" is determined not only by velocity, but by still something other?

It is impossible to answer this question unambiguously, but it is possible to note, that in all cases the "lifetime" increases, when particles move with almost same velocity and in the same direction as the aether. Actually, if formed at a height of sky a pi-meson is received the pulse of motion to the direction of the earth, then further it will move downward together with the flow of aether. Analogous situation occurs with the acceleration of particles by magnetic field in the atom-smasher. In this case, naturally, is accelerated not only the particles, but also aether itself.

At the beginning of this article we showed that from the point of view of the aether mechanics, the increase of mass (consequently, and of energy) with the high velocity of the particles relative to aether - phenomenon is quite regular and explainable.

Thus, the reason for "relativistic effects" should be searched in the latent physical properties of aether, but not in cinematic measurement errors.

The aether and the general theory of relativity.

In the period of development the general theory of relativity and after this A. Einstein repeatedly expressed his opinion concerning to existence of aether. Let us quote some of his statements.

"We cannot in theoretical physics manage without aether, i.e. the continuum, allotted by physical properties" [1].

"According to general theory of relativity space is unthinkable without aether" [1].

We will not contradict A. Einstein - last statement corresponds to the truth: the general theory of relativity is the theory, based on the properties of aether, even in spite of the fact that it includes principles of the special theory of relativity.

And actually,
- the equality of inert and gravitational masses is easy explainable with the condition for interaction of mass and aether;
- the "bend of space" - space can change the direction of the ray of light only when it has physical properties.

Since the special theory of relativity is incompatible with aether, and the general theory of relativity are used ideas about aether, it would seem, this association is impossible. But the general theory of relativity it is used in the astronomical calculations, when material bodies not move with velocities, compared with the velocity of light. Therefore the results, obtained with the general theory of relativity, agree well to the experimental data.

Nevertheless, since the aether did not become main basis for creation the general theory of relativity, this theory is good only as mathematical model, but it little helps us in understanding of the essence of interactions in world around. For the proof of the aforesaid let us give the list of the questions, to which they answer the aether mechanics and the general theory of relativity.

A question The aether mechanics The general theory of relativity
What is the gravitational field and what is the essence of the gravity mechanism? Massive bodies possess property to absorb the aether; therefore the flows of aether, which are approached bodies from without, exert gravitational pressure on all surrounding body objects. Gravitational field is the mathematical model of the space, to each point of which is applied the velocity vector of aether. There is no answer
How the gravitational field does bend space? Physical space does not depend on the selection of the type of the system of coordinates. There can be only bent system of coordinates, but not space. The light goes on along the curvilinear trajectory in the space because of changes in direction and velocity of the aether motion. There is no answer
Why it is impossible to reveal gravity waves? Because they are not present in nature. There is no answer
Why light is scattered (is dissipates) in the vacuum? Light this is wave in aether, and in any physical medium waves are scattered. There is no answer
What is the dark matter? It is the new frightening name of old good aether. There is no answer
Why the mass of the Earth and other planets does grow? Masses grow as a result of absorbing aether. Masses grow as a result of absorbing the cosmic dust.
Why it is occurred retarding the rotation of the Earth (also as Venus, Mercury)? It is the result of aether braking. There is no answer


The purpose of this article it is to prove the validity of the principle of absoluteness and to show the possibility of describing the mechanical motion in aether in such a way that the principle of absoluteness would not be disturbed. However, as far as the concrete formulas, given in the article, the author does not pretend to completeness and perfection of the hypothesis proposed. Probably, its need development and refinement.

The description of the motion of material bodies taking into account the aether entrainment, especially, when aether has complex spatial motion, it is more complex problem than in the classical mechanics and in the general theory of relativity. The study of motion especially is complicated with the deepening into the microcosm, when the sizes of the studied elementary particles become compared with the size of the corpuscles, which form the aether. In this case, naturally, it appears quanticity of interactions, and also these or other events it can begin with a certain probability, determined by the sizes the corpuscles of aether and elementary particles.

Today two of the main sections of physics are already built on the theory of aether: 1 - the general theory of relativity (or the aether mechanics), 2 - the electrodynamics, for which Maxwell's equations were obtained for the theory of aether.

Sections of physics, which study the world of elementary particles, do not use concept "aether" and its characteristics for the mathematical description of the nature, but nevertheless, when it appears need to somehow explain the studied phenomena, appears the need in aether. For the proof of the aforesaid let us give several quotations:

The theory of relativity banished from physics universal aether. It is not necessary to it, not its one formula uses this concept. But as then to be with the quantum theory, which does prove, that vacuum is not void space, but the certain special material medium, formed by fluctuations myriads particles that bearing "from anything" and here just annihilating? Is this is not the same aether? [8].

Working with the such different phenomena as electromagnetism and radioactivity, physics come to the conclusion that vacuum in physics of particles - this is not "void", but the medium, critical for the disturbance of internal symmetry, which occurred during cooling of the surrounding peace down to the present temperature. [9].

The equations, which opened Dirac, show that in nature there are particles with the positive energy - electrons and antiparticle - the positrons, whose energy is negative. They are born by pairs electron-positron from the physical vacuum. Vacuum itself is a certain latent (concealed) state of electrons and positrons. On the average physical vacuum has neither mass nor charge nor any other physical characteristics. However, in the small spatial domains (on the order of 10-33) of the vacuum of the value of physical characteristics they can become different from zero - at short distances vacuum spontaneously it fluctuates. In the vacuum the processes of generation and destruction of particles and antiparticles of different type constantly occur. Figuratively speaking, in the small time-spatial regions the vacuum is similar to the "boiling bouillon", which consists of the elementary particles. Therefore in the quantum theory arose idea about the physical vacuum as about the "quantum liquid", which exists in the perpetual motion [10].

Thus, it is possible with the large confidence to assert that in the most complex and most important branch of physics - "physics of elementary particles" the space is also unthinkable without the aether as in the electrodynamics and in the general theory of relativity.

The literature.
  1. V.A.Atsjukovsky. "General aetherdynamics", Moscow, Energoatomizdat, 1990.
  2. I.Kuldoshin. "Brief history of aether".
  3. A.A.Majkelson, E.V.Morli. "About relative movement of the Earth in the aether". Amer. J. Sci., 1887.
  4. D.K.Miller. "Experiments on a aether wind and definition of absolute movement of the Earth". The report in Kejsovsk school of applied science, 1933.
  5. A. Solovej. "The aether is the gravitational field of substance".
  6. V.N. Baharev "The matter and its conditions in the universe".
  7. A.P. Nevsky "Epoch of aether".
  8. E. Evdokimov "The engine of the universe".
  9. V. Barashenkov "Who has denied the theory of relativity?"
  10. G.I. Shipov "The theory of physical vacuum".

The additional literature.
  1. All about the aether,
  2. The collection of articles on section "The theory of relativity and it criticism", In Russian, In English.
  3. New hypotheses,

(c) Andrey Kim, October 2004. e-mail.
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